Making A Wine May Not Be Easy, But It Could Be Simple – Starting Off Small

A few years ago, a friend decided he wanted to put out a wine under his own label. His strategy was to test the markets reception and then decide whether to sell the wine in the future. His wine was a chardonnay named after his wife. He randomly contacted a custom crush facility in Napa to explore the options involved. Ultimately, he decided he wanted to buy his own fruit directly from a vineyard owner and have the fruit delivered to his custom crush facility. The rest of the work was in the hands of the facility staff. He specified in laymen terms, his label look, specifications relative to taste, tannins, alcohol, oaky aromas, and acid levels. In 12 short month’s his family and friends were toasting his new wine. Do you have a similar dream?

Digressing for a moment. In the late 60’s I visited the Robert Mondavi Winery; they were finishing building their new winery. And for a long time after that I equated a bottle of wine with a physical winery; one having a grand building and surrounding vineyards. Reality isn’t that. In reality, a winery may not include a physical plant and support facilities surrounded by their vineyards. In the past, consumers perceived premium fine wine was considered premium if made by wineries that owned their own vineyards and buildings.

Today premium wines can be made by winemakers who neither own the physical facilities or the vineyards. Boutique wines, varietal and blended, are not a function of a building or owned land. As Celebrations Wine Club notes, “Many of the wines that are now cutting edge are made by winemakers without their own vines, who are hunting down extraordinary fruit from small, often old, and usually obscure vineyards in out-of-the-way places and making extraordinary wines that command handsome prices. Ultimately fine wine is the result of winemaking technique and vineyard quality, regardless of who owns the land.”

In the case of vineyards/grapes, winemakers don’t need to own the land and the vines, if someone else produces quality fruit, then buy from them. Relative to winery facilities, over the past 10-15 years, there are more options for winemakers to ply their skills through “Custom Crush” and “Alternating Proprietors” options. I will explain both, but the focus now is on Custom Crush because that is where boutique/small case production winemakers can get the most help in crafting their wines while exerting various levels of control in the winemaking process.

Alternating Proprietor-Where two or more entities take turn using the same space and equipment to produce wine. These arrangements allow existing fixed facilities wineries to use excess capacity. The TTB (Tax and Trade Bureau of the Treasury Dept.) must approve all proprietors as an operator of a Bonded Winery. These are the same requirements as if owning 100% of the winery.

Custom Crush-The wine ‘Producer’ is authorized by TTB to make wine and is entirely responsible for producing the wine and following all regulations and taxes. The ‘Customer’ is not responsible for interfacing with the TTB or paying taxes directly. Once the finished wine is transferred to the customer the sale is completed and taxes are paid by the “Producer”.

Note: Unless the “Customer” chooses to give his wine away to friends or even sommeliers as a free sample, no filing with the TTB is required. However, to sell the wine, the former ‘Customer’ now becomes and acts like a winery and must file with the TTB for a license to sell the wine-remember there are two things in life that are unavoidable, one being “taxes”. This notwithstanding, some custom crush facilities can assist in selling a Customers dream wine “Direct-to-Consumers” by acting as a licensee for the Customer.

The above explanation is only to explain that there are two options for winemakers to craft their own wine absent owning a physical winery. A custom crush facility is free to help the winemaker based upon agreed fees, but ultimately, the custom crush operator is responsible for everything from label approvals, to record keeping relative to bonding, and taxes.

The growth of the Alternating Proprietors and Custom Crush options has been so dramatic that in 2008 the TTB came out with an Industry Circular to remind wineries and custom crush operators as to the rules/laws that apply to their operations as set forth by the TTB.

The “virtual” winery industry of 2015 in the U.S. was 1,477, out of a total of 8,287 wineries (6,810 were bonded). The Custom Crush universe now represents 18% of all wineries and had a 23% growth 2015 versus 2014. With California representing approximately 50% of U.S. wineries it is easy to understand that the big push into custom crush is California driven.

The true magnitude of just how impactful the custom crush business has become can be realized when we explore the definition of a winery. Basically, it is defined as an establishment that produces wine for proprietors or owners of the winery and pay taxes on the finished product. Most boutique wine sellers have their own licenses to sell their wines and are therefore wineries. In the case of custom crush, there is only one entity paying the taxes, yet it is not uncommon for them to be producing wine for 100 plus people. Looking at the client list of two custom crush companies in Sonoma and Napa, they produce wine for more than 100 clients each.

In the virtual world of wine production, the Alternating Proprietor is not Custom Crush and really does not cater to the small or start-up person. So, what is the profile of a custom crush adventure?

It seems that almost every Custom Crush company has their own business model. For example:

· Size of production.

Some will provide services for a minimum of one barrel-25 cases of wine/approximately 300 bottles. Others stipulate a minimum production of 4 barrels, or even more.

· Services and Cost.

This is probably best discussed in the context of explaining two business custom crush models on both extremes-large full service and a smaller operation that caters to small clients exclusively. These are simply two I chose, of dozens of operators available to potential winemakers.

The Wine Foundry in Napa seems to have the most inclusive offering of services that starts with a single barrel option, although most clients are larger than single barrel. They support the client/winemaker throughout, design and obtain label design/TTB approval, fruit sourcing, crush, fermentation, lab facility/monitoring, varietal wines for blending, bottling-bottles/cork/ foils, taxation record keeping, and even a program to assist in commercial distribution of your wine. Alternatively, if a client is on a tight timeframe or not interested in making a custom wine, they will put a personalized label on a wine they have produced for themselves. The Wine Foundry has every solution to support a brand from incubation to full scale custom crush and a brand or individual can produce as little as 25 cases to as much as 15,000 cases per year.

As noted previously, every custom crush facility has their own model in doing business with clients. The simplest full service option, where the facility does everything for the client, except source the fruit (one ton or 2 barrels of finished Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon wine), is approximately $9,100 or $15/bottle (approximately 600 bottles total). But, remember, the cost of the fruit is not in the production costs. This price includes the sorting, crush, use of facilities for fermentation, barrel aging, labels, blending wine, standard packaging and bottling. Once you buy the fruit from The Wine Foundry, or source it yourself, the finished bottle of Napa Cabernet Sauvignon your finished bottle of Cabernet Sauvignon will be approximately $35.00 to $41.00 per bottle (fruit price varies by vineyard).

Don’t panic at the price because some of The Wine Foundry custom crush clients have sold their wine at up to $200 per bottle; the average is approximately $85.00 per bottle. Mind you, that is a premium wine!

The commercial activity associated with selling your wine is a totally different issue with additional costs and regulations. But then you can immediately start building a commercial wine brand.

At the other end of the spectrum is Judd’s Hill MicroCrush. Judd’s Hill MicroCrush’s average custom crush is between 1-5 barrels for a new client. The services they provide will produce a custom premium wine to include: crush, fermentation, barrel aging, label designs (outsourced), bottling and lab work. (In the case of a red wine it is approximately a 2-year process and for whites it is 1 year.) Many of their clients are small vineyard owners who, for varied reasons, want wine produced to their specifications that will showcase their fruit.

“Our customers run the gambit from the single barrel customer to a vineyard owner bringing us 10 or more tons of fruit,” explained Susie Dineen, Manager. To keep it simple for Judd’s Hill customer base, they have a flat rate charge of $4,450 per barrel which includes everything except fruit, labels, small lot wines for blending and taxes. The fruit is an additional cost to the client. Assuming, you buy 1 barrel of Cabernet Sauvignon you could have a premium wine for approximately $27.00 per bottle (flat rate charges plus the fruit, label, etc.). If you can’t wait, buy a premium finished barrel from their own barrel room, ready to bottle after you add your own blending touches.

You better expect to make 2 barrels of wine because you may find it hard to buy anything less than 1 ton of grapes and 1 ton will make 2 barrels of wine or 600 bottles. Judd’s Hill is unique in that their custom crush model allows them to cater to the single barrel ½ ton of fruit client.

Bottom-line, if a potential customer wants to try their hand at being a winemaker there are tons (no pun intended) of custom crush facilities that can help. All such facilities I talked to have a menu of services they offer with corresponding costs noted. It is up to the customer to be comfortable with their winemaking abilities relative to what they expect in the finished wine and their objectives.

The fruit costs can easily represent 60% of the finished costs. The king of varietals in Napa is Cabernet Sauvignon and within Napa a big factor is what vineyard you get the fruit from. In the 2016 harvest, the Cabernet Sauvignon cost per ton ranged from $5,400 to $8,500. Some Zinfandel grapes were available for $2,400 per ton. Chardonnay grapes averaged $2,500 to $3,000 per ton. The big drivers, aside from yields, in fruit costs are: the AVA/county (i.e. Napa, Sonoma, Lodi), reputation of the vineyard, quality and even the clone. Read more info click acehighwine.com

More Article : A Guide to Wine

A Guide to Wine

Coming upon the long wall of wines at your local grocery store can be an intimidating experience. With so many different choices within so many different wine categories, how can you possibly choose the perfect wine to serve with your meal? Perhaps more importantly, without knowing what all these wine terms mean, how do you choose a wine that you and possibly others will enjoy? To be quite frank, unless you sit down with every bottle and taste it with the meal (not recommended), you will never know exactly what wines will go perfectly with that meal. Wine and food pairing is not a perfect science that you can learn. Instead, Recipe4Living would like to offer some general guidelines for success in pairing wine with food and several do’s and don’t for the beginner’s enjoyment of wine. This article will outline the most popular wine varieties and how they differ. In no time, you’ll feel comfortable schmoozing with the biggest wine snobs.

Enjoying Wine

* Let go of your wine assumptions, especially the belief that wine is expensive. You can easily get a great bottle of wine for under $10. As with cooking, the key to good wine is all about balance and not necessarily the rarest grapes.

* Have fun! Experiment! Enjoying wine is about what you like, not about what you are supposed to like according to the experts. When you find a wine you really like, simply note the winery and the variety. As you gain more experience with wine, you can include descriptions of different elements in the wine. Better yet, act the sophisticate and host wine tasting parties with friends and discuss different wines.

* Look for the increasingly popular screw-cap, as opposed to the cork. The problem with natural corks is that a moldy spoilage can occur in the wine (in 3-5% of natural corked bottles!) because of a reaction that sometimes occurs in the cork. Synthetic corks have attempted to solve this problem, but they are much harder to remove and cannot be used to re-seal the bottles. Old habits die hard, but more and more wineries are switching to the screw-cap.

* Certain wines are better at certain temperatures. For example, a freezing cold Chardonnay will lose much of its taste. Keep these guidelines in mind:

– Whites should be served cold between 43°F and 53°F. This can be done by chilling the bottle in ice for an hour before serving. You do not want to keep a glass of white wine in the refrigerator for long periods of time.

– Sparkling wines and champagnes should be served cooler, around 45°F.

– Although room temperature is ok, red wines should really be served between 55°F and 65°F, or cellar temperature.

* Despite its reputation for pretension, invest in some quality stemware if you want to truly enjoy wine. The right glass will truly enhance the flavor of the wine and your appreciation of it. Wine glasses need to have a large cup or “bowl” to allow the wine to breathe, because the interaction with the air releases all the wines aromas and flavors.

Removing Red Wine Stains– Truly essential information in the enjoyment of wine.

* White wine- Ironically the best stain-fighter for red wine, white wine will neutralize the wine and make it easier to remove. Simply pour some on the stain and blot gently with a rag. Don’t rub or you will force the stain deeper into the clothing or carpet fibers. After blotting up most of the wine, simply clean with your favorite carpet cleaner or stain-fighter as normal.

* Club Soda- The carbonation in club soda helps to lift the wine from the fibers.

* Salt- Salt acts as a buffer to keep the stain from setting while you look for other cleaning options.

White Wines

Chardonnay- A very drinkable white wine differentiated from other varieties by a special aging and fermentation process in oak barrels. The special oak barrels give the wine its unique aromas ranging from nutty to creamy. This wine can include tastes of vanilla, pear, lemon, pineapple, peach and more. Chardonnay is usually regarded as the white table wine.

Muscat/Moscato- This low-alcohol wine has an intensely perfumed aroma and a distinctive musky taste, and is often used as a dessert wine. The aroma of the wine can include gardenia and honey and the taste includes elements of citrus and tropical fruits.

Pinot Grigio- More colorful than other white wines, Pinot Grigio is soft and delicately perfumed. The acidity of the wine gives it a nice crispness. The wine’s elements can include flowers, subtle spices, pear, and citrus.

Riesling- This lower-alcohol wine comes from the most famous of German grapes and is characterized by a unique fruit and acid balance. Unlike many other wines, Riesling is rarely prepared in oak barrels, making it more adaptable to many types of food, including hot and spicy choices. Riesling is usually a dry wine, with sweet elements of peach and honeysuckle.

Sauvignon Blanc- One of the most aromatic wines with fragrances of grass and citrus, Sauvignon Blanc is spicier than the Chardonnay varieties. The taste can have hints of melon, gooseberry, and black currant. New Zealand produces some of the finest Sauvignon Blanc.

Red Wines

Barberra- This deep red wine comes most successfully from the Piedmont of Italy, and is heavily planted in the Central Valley of California because of its ability to withstand high temperatures. A full body, luscious berry flavors and crispness from the high acidity characterize this wine.

Cabernet Sauvignon- These full bodied, intensely flavored red wines tend to improve with aging, often spending 15 to 30 months aging in oak barrels. Such aging gives the wine toasted vanilla and cedar tastes, while the wine also features plum, black cherry, and spice elements. Now the most widely planted grape in the world, the Cabernet Sauvignon grape actually come from a cross between two French varieties: Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon Blanc.

Merlot- A softer and much less intense red wine than cabernet that is ready to drink sooner. The dry smoothness of the wine makes it a popular choice in restaurants. Merlot is often mixed with cabernet to soften its acidity. Descriptions of the wine’s tastes include many of the same as cabernet and green olive, herbs, and chocolate. The Merlot grape responds well to cooler climates making it very versatile.

Pinot Noir- Widely regarded as the most difficult grape to grow, this delicate wine is logically one of the most sought after varieties of wine, originating in the Burgundy region of France. This elegant wine can include elements of raisin, black cherry, and strawberry.

Sangiovese- This dry red wine is characterized by a smooth texture, medium-bodied spice flavors, and an earthy aroma. Made from a grape native to Northern Italy, Sangiovese is often used for Italian Chianti wines.

Syrah- This flavorful wine originates in the Rhone region in France and has many raspberry, pepper and spice aromas and flavors. In addition to France, the grape for Syrah is now also very successful in Australia.

Zinfandel- Although much of Zinfandel is turned into a sweet blush wine called White Zinfandel, Zinfandel is a red wine made from the most popularly grown grape in California. The hearty grape is very adaptable to a producer’s manipulation, making it very versatile. Zinfandel is very fruity, with raspberry, cherry, and plum tastes.

Blush Wines- Blush wines or rosé wine, which have a lighter pink color, are made by removing the skins of red grapes early in the fermentation process. This technique also lightens the flavor of the red grapes, creating a more delicate wine. White Zinfandel is actually produced as the product of “bleeding” regular Zinfandel, or removing some of the juice to heighten certain flavors and color in the wine. The juice is then fermented separately.

Sparking Wine & Champagne- Carbon dioxide resulting from natural fermentation of the grapes makes these wines bubbly. Although often used interchangeable, laws in many countries dictate that champagne can only refer to wine produce in the Champagne region of France. The major varietals used to make French champagne include Chardonnay and Pinot Noir. American producers of sparkling wine use the same nomenclature as European producers. Ironically, on a scale from driest to sweetest, sparking wine or champagne is labeled thus: Read more click Ace High Wine

Natural (Brut Nature)- Driest

Brut

Extra Dry

Dry (Sec)

Semi-Dry (Demi-Sec)

Sweet (Doux)

Wine and Food Pairings– Traditional wisdom on pairing wine with food dictates that white wine pairs well with white meats and red wine with red meats. In recent years, more creative sommeliers (the person in charge of wines at a restaurant) have shown that this rule is not always necessary or even correct. The sauce and the preparation of the food are most important to wine pairing, and many different wines may work well with a certain dish. In general though, the best rule of thumb is to try and match more delicate flavors with lighter wine like Riesling or Sauvignon Blanc, hearty cream flavors with medium bodied wines like Chardonnay and Merlot, and thicker meaty or spicy flavors with fuller wines like Syrah. When reading through these suggestions of wine and food pairings, keep in mind that there are no set rules.

More Article : Finding a Better Understanding of Wine

Finding a Better Understanding of Wine

Some individuals are so seriously interested in wine the enjoyment’s gone. Other people say things about wine that are not correct. Here are the principles on wine only clarified.

1. Making wine

The utilization of wine isn’t simple to describe. In France they say that there are just as many wines as wineries.

Every winemaker provides his personal touch before, during and following the vinification procedure.

All those below facets has its own influence on the flavor and quality of the wine:

* The Choice of the land plot
* The weather (along with the date of crop )
* The Choice of the grape number
* The Kind of fermentation tanks or casks
* The temperatures during fermentation
* The Length of fermentation
* The Kind of casks where the wine ripens

Nobody can pretend there’s just a single method of creating wine. This simple fact contributes to the allure of wine and is also the origin of the massive diversity in wines. Winemaking needs”savoir-faire” and expertise.

A winemaker isn’t merely a craftsman, but also an artist.

These facets give an Notion of exactly what winemaking involves:

1. Planting (or grafting) that the grapevine
2. Creating the racemes
3. Harvesting the grapes
4. Destemming* and crushing the tomatoes in a stainless steel container
5. Alcoholic fermentation of the need to
6. “Maceration”: construction of colour and taste
7. Raking
8. “Malolactic” fermentation
9. Riping
10. Bottling
11. Tasting

Decision: chiefly for red wine

Must: that is actually the juice obtained by crushing the tomatoes

Alcoholic fermentation: the juice becomes wine from the natural effect of yeasts which transforms sugar to alcohol

Maceration: the solids, the”pomace”, such as skin, stems and seeds, provide their flavor and color to the must

Raking: the”pomace” along with also the need to be divided. The need to “vin de goutte”, the”pomace” becomes”vin de presse”

“Malolactic” fermentation: From the functioning of natural germs, the sharp”malic” acids have been changed in elastic and secure lactic acids

Ripening: that the wine is filtered and transferred to casks so as to stabilize and return to perfection.

RED WINE

Crushing and destemming

The blossoms arriving in the basement are crushed and destemmed. The fruits free their pulp and juice.

The need to get that way is place into a tank to experience the process of fermentation.

Alcoholic fermentation

The fermentation tanks are usually pine barrels or stainless steel tanks, occasionally concrete or enamelled steel.

Fermentation is a natural procedure. Yeasts present in berries (however the inclusion of selected yeasts is generalizing) alter the glucose inside the necessity in alcohol and carbonic gas.

The winemaker helps the activity of this yeasts by keeping the temperature around 25 to 30°C and ventilating the need to regularly. Beneath 25°C the wine won’t have sufficient body, over 30°C, the wine is going to be to tannic.

The fermentation process goes on for 4 days to 10 days.

Maceration

Here is the interval during which the tannic elements along with also the color of skin diffuse in the fermented juice. The connection between the liquid (have to ) and the strong components (skin, pips and occasionally stalks ) will give colour and body to the wine.

At this phase, complicated operations will show the ability of this winemaker (dissolution, extraction, excretion, diffusion, decoction, extract ).

To get”vins primeurs” or”vins nouveaux” (fresh wines) that the maceration is quite brief, the blossoms are supple and comprise little tannin. Wines destined to be maintained long require a great deal of tannin, so the maceration could be extended. It goes on for many days, possibly several weeks.

Raking

The wine is separated from the solids, the pomace. The wine acquired by raking is known as”free run wine” (vin de goutte).

The pomace is pressed to be able to extract the juice still contains. This wine is known as”press wine” (vin de presse). It’s richer in tannin.

Based upon the winemaker goal or the local custom, free run wine and media wine are mixed or handled individually.

Malolactic fermentation

It’s the process during the lactic acidity of wine changes to lactic acid and carbonic gas below the activity of bacteria naturally found in the wine. Malic acid is unpleasant, it’s transformed into healthy and supple lactic acid.

This fermentation is available at a tank through a couple of weeks in a temperature between 18° and 20°C.

Stabilisation

The vinification is completed but the wine isn’t. To be in a position to age and also to enhance the wine has to be explained again. Following the drink is going to be set in oak casks in which it will stabilize.

The diversity of red wine is such it may proceed with any sort of food. However, you should certainly not conclude from this that red wines are indistinguishable.

WHITE WINE

White wine isn’t actually white but actually yellowish. However, the saying being universal one states of a yellowish wine it is white.

Vinification of white wine is much more fragile than vinification of red wine.

Two approaches exist to create wine

a. The first one would be to use white grape (that is actually green, greenish yellow, gold yellow or pinkish yellow! ) ) . This way the white wine is the effect of the fermentation of the juice of green berry juice just.

b. The next method is much more complicated. One utilizes the juice with a red grape number stripped of skin and pips, by that it might not touch base because they feature the harmful substances. It’s possible to acquire white wine such a way but it’s seldom done.

Time is counted :

Immediately following their arrival from the basement, the grapes are crushed although not destemmed. The juice (free conduct needs to ) is delivered to settle in containers). The remaining grapes is pressed as swiftly as possible. Air is the enemy of white wine. During its touch the wine becomes colored. The need to from pressing is additional to the free rush needs to.

Planning of the need to:

Following six to twelve hours that the particles and impurity of this avocado individual from the need to and float onto the surface. They’re eliminated by multiplying the must. The need to is prepared to be explained. The juice is poured into a tank, ready to ferment.

Alcoholic fermentation :

White wine effects of this fermentation of must just.

No solids (stalks, skin, pips,…) intervene.

The control of the fever is indispensable. It needs to be kept approximately 18° C. The winemaker regularly cools the need to enable the yeast to operate properly.

The fermentation goes for just two to three weeks. The winemaker daily checks the growth of the procedure.

When fermentation is finished, the wine is put into casks and raked, exactly like a red wine then it’s bottled.

Winemakers often choose oak casks that give the wine that the tannin it requires, but it won’t be adequate. Tannin is the important element for aging. This is the reason white wine doesn’t keep so long as wine.

On the other hand white wines present a bigger assortment of tastes: quite tender, dry, semi-dry, mellow, syrupy, petillant, sparkling, madeirized,…

White wine can be drunk any event: before, with or after a meal, and between foods.

White wines are usually regarded as aperitif wines, occasionally as dessert wines. Lots of people prefer to drink white wine in warm weather. Its refreshing qualities are really very well-known. White wine is served refreshing but not chilled.

WHY WINE DOES NOT TURN INTO VINEGAR ?

Sulfur dioxide, despite its barbaric title, is a component crucial for the quality of the wine.

It’s made up of oxygen and sulfur. Fermentation naturally generates a little bit of it.

Winemakers add more to the wine. Sulfur dioxide would be to wine that which aspirin would be to human beings: the amazing remedy that cures all type of ailments and prevents others.

Sulfur dioxide is a bactericide that prevents wine from shifting into vinegar. It inhibits the activity of yeasts: it’s why sweet wines don’t move on fermenting after bottling.

In addition to this it’s an anti-oxidizer. It enables wine to maintain all of its freshness and averts its alteration by its own enemy: the oxygen.

2. Preventing and serving wine and food-wine guidelines

The most crucial issue would be to keep wine at a lying position therefore the cork is obviously moist. This prevents the cork from drying up and the jar out of becoming air which would signify that the oxidation of this wine. This is just crucial if we shop wines for more extended amounts of time.

One other important facet is the temperature where we shop wine. This temperature must be approximately 12-14°C. The accessibility of light to the basement ought to be restricted and best avoided entirely.

The ripening of wine at house cellars is a hobby to get actual wine lovers. Just imagine the magic of this moment we function of jar of entirely mature, carefully kept wine awaited for ages.

The perfect approach to locate the best time for drinking the wine would be purchasing wine in cases (of 6 or 12 bottles) and starting a single bottle from time to time. Young wine is just much more affordable than aged and totally older wine. Additionally, it may be an excellent company to purchase a few instances of a particular promising wine and afterwards, once the wine is fully mature, sell a part of the inventory. The sale price will pay for your remaining bottles.

Getting your own wine cellar gives another wonderful benefit… We will always know exactly what to do if we’ve unexpected guests and using a specific assortment of wines we’ll always find something suitable to decide on the meals.

The most crucial issue when operating wine is its own temperature. We need to take into account that the definition”room temperature” originates from days when this temperature didn’t exceed 18° C.

So let us first draw attention to the temperature where wine has been served:

Champaign ought to be served at a temperature of 6-8°C,
White wine – in a temperature of 8-12°C,
Young red wine – in a temperature of 13-14°C,
Light reddish wine – in a temperature of 14-16°C,
Precious and green wine – in a temperature of 18°C.

The upcoming essential thing is that the arrangement where wines have been served. There are a Couple of fundamentals :

Wines must be served from whites rose to reds,
Dry wine is always served sweet and liqueur wine,
Young wine before green wine,
Light wine prior to powerful wine.

Now the wine and food issue. The blend of dishes and wine is actually a specific feeling for perceptions. If we’re convinced that there’s excellent food around the table and the wine can also be great, then nothing bad should happen. The main issue would be to follow your intuition, select decent wine and great food.

Times when the principle found that white wine is served with fish and red with meat appear too to be finished. It’s worth observing that now’s Californian or Australian Chardonnay is fuller and stronger than fragile Pinot Noir and occasionally even Cabernet, that refutes somehow the concept of wine choice with its color .

Among the more straightforward principles of this choice of wine with meals is appearing in its heaviness and potency. This usually means that the dish and wine should have comparable power – to delicate foods mild wine, to thick ones powerful wine.

So far as a spectrum of meals is quite hard to liven up, we could be tempted to exhibit wines from the traditional sequence in the lightest to the majority.

Although for certain wines are available which don’t stick to the specified order, this is how wines are arranged from the ones that are lightest into the heaviest. Read more info click acehighwine.com

More Article : On Italian Wine

On Italian Wine

Italy has the a long illustrious history in wine dating back to the Roman Empire and the Ancient Greeks who planted some vineyards in Sicily and other parts of Southern Italy like; Calabria and Campania. The Romans with their far reaching Empire that stretched across Europe and into North Africa, planted vineyards in every corner of their domain, including; France, Germany, Spain, and Croatia.

Wine is as deeply rooted into the Italian lifestyle as pizza, pasta, Prosciutto, and Parmigiano.
When it comes to wine there is no country on Earth that can compare to Italy. If you look at wine maps of other major wine producing countries, you will see that vineyards are planted in just a few areas here and there as far as the entire land mass is concerned. Italy on the other hand has vines planted in the whole of the country, from Friuli in the North-East down to the toe of Calabria in the South-West and everywhere in-between, along with the large islands of Sardinia and Sicily.

No matter where you go in Italy you will find grape vines growing. There is no country in the world with such a multitude of grapes being cultivated, furthermore there is no country on the planet that has the diversity in wine styles and grape varieties grown. The number of grape varieties is staggering as compared to other countries. Take the United States, France, and Australia for example, three of the top wine producing countries in the world, in terms of both quality and quantity. In Australia and the U.S. the primary grapes produced are Chardonay, Sauvignon Blanc, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, and Pinot Noir. Add to this a fair amount of Reisling and Gamay, a bit of Cabernet Franc, Pinot Bianco, Petit Verdot, and Petit Syrah and a few other varieties and you have the major grapes grown in these countries.

France cultivates these varieties and more, including Muscadet, Grenache, Viognier, and Carrignan. No doubt they have a nice variety of great wine produced in France. Wines that I love, especially from the Rhone and Bordeaux but for all the wonderful wines from France they can’t come close to touching Italy in number of styles and grape varieties.

Italy, for my money, is thee Worlds Best!

There are a number of grape varieties that are grown in Italy and no where else or in such minuscule amounts that they are of no consequence. One example, Nebbiolo, the solitary grape that makes-up the famed Barolos and Barbarescos of Peidmonte. Nebbiolo thrives mainly in
Peidmonte and in Lombardia, but no place else in world, although it has been grown in teeny amounts in California and Virginia with mediocre results.

As well as being the single grape variety that makes up the famed Barolo’s and Barbaresco’s, Nebbiolo is the grape of Gattinara, Nebbiolo d’ Alba, and several other wines of Peidmonte. Wines made of Nebbiolo are wine world stars with producers like Angelo Gaja, Aldo Conterno, Giacomo Conterno, La Spinetta, and the great Bruno Giacosa, to name just a handful of famous producers who make the legendary Barolo’s and Barbaresco’s.

A few other excellent varieties that are grown in Italy and nowhere else are grapes like Ruche, Negromano, Nero d’ Avola, Ciliegielo, Monduese, and Picolit.

Along with the indigenous varieties, Italy has great examples of the Big Four of the Wine World; Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Syrah. With the tremendous amount of indigenous varieties along with the “Big Four” it makes for an infinite amount of styles that can be made of single varietal wines or an endless range of wines that are proprietary blends in which Italy makes by far the greatest number in the world.

For any wine drinker interested in exploring the endless variety of interesting wines, with a never-ending realm of possibilities of taste and styles, they need look no further than Italy. It’s the top of the ladder, but the sad fact is that for all of the hundreds of millions of people who drink wine regularly, there are just a small percentage who really delve into the great depths of all that is available. The large majority of wine drinkers keep drinking the same old things over and over, The Big Four, and if they do drink some Italian wines, most just drink Pinot Grigio, Chianti, Brunello, Amarone, Valpolicella, and little else. This great peninsula has so much to offer, it’s mind boggling, wines like; Barbera, Vermentino, Salice Salentino, Taurasi, Tocai, Aglianico d’Vulture, Greco d’ Tufo, Fiano d’ Avelino, Brachetto, Ripasso’s, Friesa, and Nero d’Avola, just to name a very few.

Some of the famous renowned wines are the great Barolo’s and Barbaresco’s, Vino Nobile, Brunello, Chianti, Amarone, and a multitude of wonderful Super Tuscans. What is a Super Tuscan? Many people will ask. It is mystifying to many, exactly what they are. It’s a question that is a little hard to explain, but I will do just that. For more info click cehighwine.com

Read More Article : Make Pizza Shop Style Pizza At Home

Make Pizza Shop Style Pizza At Home

Many of you know how much I love to cook, so the nickname The Cookin Momma. I cook just about anything but I believe my favorites are soup and pizza. Who doesn’t like pizza, right? I discovered years ago how to make my bread that FINALLY tastes just like it came in the pizza store. Yes, I learned how to make pizza shop style pizza in the home. There are two key tricks; it has to be high gluten free flour and you need to let the dough ferment at least 2 days. I not only going to share the ideal pizza dough recipe, but I’m going to discuss some cooking methods also. And you can use these methods even in the event that you purchase your dough.

The Dough

If you would like to create your own dough (that I highly recommend) then here’s the recipe. If not, that is OK too; the cooking methods below will still work. You can knead the dough by hand, use a solid mixer such as a kitchen aide, or perhaps use a bread machine. I like simple, so I use the bread machine since it has a dough cycle. I plop it in 1 and there 1/2 hours afterwards, it beeps and I’m ready to go. This will create enough dough for 2 12-inch pizzas.

1/4 – 1/2-teaspoon dry yeast

1-cup H20

1-teaspoon sugar

1-teaspoon salt

1-teaspoon oil

3 to 3 1/2 cups High Gluten Flour (I use King Arthur Flour Perfect Pizza Blend). The amount of flour will change on your humidity level. The dough ought to be stiff and nice. Cut the dough into half, form into two balls and place each in a bowl that has been lightly covered with olive oil. Loosely cover each bowl with a few plastic wrap. (I actually use a new plastic shower cap). Cover in the fridge and let it stay there anywhere from 2 – 10 days. After 2 days, the dough is ready to use. Tip: When you’re ready to use the dough, allow it to sit a good hour or so to get room temperature before you roll it out. You can roll it out ahead of time and cover with a fabric until you are prepared to use it. I do this so I do not have to roll and clean while my guests are still here. (I also get all my toppings ready beforehand too).

Cooking Methods
Cooking It On The Grill With A Pizza Stone
I use my own grill for pizza and everything is no exception. The secret to getting a fine, crispy crust is high heat (500 degrees) and also a great pizza stone. If you are cooking it on the grill, then the pizza rock must be 1/2 inch or thicker. I’m not a pizza master and I will use my hands, but I like to use a rolling pin because it allows me to roll out the dough evenly. While I use my hands, I always end up stretching a little in spots. I roll my dough out to a pizza peel which has corn meal sprinkled on it. Don’t roll it out too thin – you’ll get use to how much after a couple of tries. Once I roll it out, I move it to a pizza display. The reason why I do so is because I never had fortune slipping off it peel even with the corn meal. Plus all that corn meal creates a mess of your grill or oven. If you are using dough which you purchased, then you can skip the steps before placing your dough around the pizza display. You need to heat your grill with the pizza stone inside so that it gets nice and sexy. As soon as you’ve assembled your pizza (directions below), you’ll want to place the display on the hot stone and close the lid. Depending upon the depth of your pizza, then you want to cook it 3-4 minutes then rotate the pizza 90 degrees, close the lid and cook it another 3-4 minutes. If your barbecue and stone are hot enough, then your pizza should have a nice crunchy bottom and should stay stiff once you cut it. If it sags, it’ll still taste great, but not be that crunchy style pizza.

Cooking It On The Grill Without A Pizza Stone

If you do not have a rock, that’s OK too. You wish to keep your eye on the heat with this one because each grill is different and your dough will be right above the flames. Roll out your dough by hand as described above. Gently brush the dough with olive oil and set the oil side down, right in your grill. Keep it there until it crunches up about 3-4 minutes or so. At the mean time oil the top part of the dough. Once the bottom has crunched up, reverse the dough (new oil side , crunchy side up) and place your toppings on top. Close the lid and allow the pizza cook about another 3 minutes.

Cooking It In Your Oven
For your dough, you want to follow the steps in the first method I clarified , up to placing your dough onto the monitor. You need to get an oven which goes up to 500 degrees. Ensure that your oven rack is in the center of you oven. Put the pizza stone directly on that middle rack. Turn your oven and pre-heat to 500 levels. I usually wait a couple of minutes once the oven reaches that temperature to ensure the rock has the time to also achieve 500 degrees.

Assembling Your Pizza
I bet you didn’t know there’s a particular order to placing pizza collectively, did you? I use to set the cheese last and it always burnt. I discovered the true way to layer. Bear in mind, what cook the quickest go on the bottom. Following is a basic layering, sauce, cheese, mushrooms, onions, meat. Or, milk, oil, roasted tomatoes, garlic. See how that goes? The heaver things keep the milder things from burning. If you are using meat like hamburger, meatballs, sausages, poultry, I recommend you pre-cook them somewhat so they are cooked thoroughly when the pizza is completed. Additionally, be sure to have all your toppings cut upward; pre-cooked and prepared to go when you’re ready to assemble your pizza. Don’t try putting the sauce on then cutting the your dough will get soggy. Prepare everything beforehand.

Toppings

I love to have fun with the toppings. The year I finally got the dough straight, my husband asked for pizza every evening. I said “aren’t you sick of pizza?” He said,”no because you make it totally different every night.” Another nice thing is you can control the type and amount of toppings you wear, thus controlling your fat and calorie intake.

Really get creative with your toppings. I use all sorts of cheese and not a lot of it. You would be amazed how good it tastes. OK, here are some of our favorite toppings,

Base Layer

Olive oil, pizza sauce, pesto, mustard/ketchup, (I make a cheeseburger pizza), sour cream (because of the buffalo pizza or loaded baked curry )

Next Layer (Cheese)

6 Italian cheese blend, Parmesan, shredded cheddar (buffalo pizza and baked potato pizza), American,
mozzarella cheese (for the cheeseburger pizza), feta, blue cheese

Next Layer (veggies)

Roasted garlic, fresh herbs, berries, mushrooms, onions, peppers, roasted peppers, sun dried tomatoes, broccoli, chopped potatoes

Closing Top Layer (your heaviest things that require the maximum cooking time – remember to pre-cook your meat)

Chicken, shrimp, clams, turkey bacon, turkey sausage, ground turkey hamburger, turkey pepperoni. The list can go on, but you get the idea. When you are making it yourself, the ideas are endless.

Tips: If you’re looking for that gooey extending cheese, then sprinkle shredded mozzarella in your own pizza the past 3 minutes of cooking time. And always let your pizza rest a little before trimming.

So there you have it! I hope you enjoy. It feels like it is time consuming, but it really isn’t and it is so well worth it. If you’re making your own bread, make a few batches at once. As I said the dough lasts up to ten days. Enjoy! Find out more info click acehighwine.com

More Article : Cheers – Its Wine

Cheers – Its Wine

Wine is one of the most fascinating drinks among the European citizens. It is an alcoholic beverage prepared from the fermented grape juice. Grapes have the chemical property of carrying out fermentation without the utilization of sugars, enzymes or other nutrients. It is prepared fermenting the crushed grapes with the different types of yeast strains. Yeast consumes all the sugars present in grapes and converts them into alcohol. Different types of grapes and different strains of grapes are responsible for the production of different types of wines. Apples and berries are also utilized for the preparation of wines and the wines obtained are named after the name of the fruit like apple wine or elderberry wine or are popularly name as fruit wine or country wine. Barley and rice wine are prepared from the starch based materials and resemble beer and spirit more than wine and ginger wine is fortified with brandy. The term wine is used for these beverages because of their high alcoholic content. The commercial use of the term English wine is under the government control.

Wine has a very rich history which is 6000 BC old and is thought to have originated in the borders of Georgia and Iran. The wine was prepared in Europe for the first time about 4500 BC ago in the Balkans and was very common in Rome, Thrace and ancient Greece. Wine also deserves an important role in religion throughout the history. The Greek god Dionysus and the Roman god Bacchus symbolize wine and the wine is used in the catholic and Jewish ceremonies. The word wine has originated from a Proto-Germanic word winam which means grape. The earliest cultivation of grapevine Vitis vinifera first started in Georgia. Wine has been prepared in India from the Vedic times. Viticulture started in India first in the Indus valley where grapevines were introduced for the first time from Persia about 5000 BC ago. Chanakya, the chief minister of the Emperor Chandragupta Maurya has discussed about wine in his writings about 4th century BC ago and has designated wine by the term Madhu. He has focused on the side effects of wine and has strongly condemned the use of wine.

Wine is prepared from more than one varieties of Vitis vinifera like Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay and Merlot. When one of these varieties is used the resultant is termed as varietal. The world’s most expensive wines come from the regions like Bordeaux and Rhone Valley are blended from different varieties of the same vintage. Wine can also be prepared from the hybrid varieties of grapes obtained by genetic cross breeding. Vitis labrusca, Vitis aestivalis, Vitis rupestris, Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American varieties of grapes grown for the production of jams, jellies or sometimes wine.

Hybridization is a different process so cannot be confused with grafting. Most of the world’s grape vineyards are planted with the European variety of grapevine Vitis vinifera grafted with the North American species rootstock. This is basically done because the North American species are resistant to Phyllosera a root louse that damages the roots of grapevines resulting in death. In the late 19th century most of the vineyards of Europe were destroyed by a bug leading to deaths of grapevines and heavy economic loss. Grafting is a common practice in all wine producing nations except Argentina, Chile and Canary Islands and only these areas include vineyards free from any devastating pests. Associated with wine production terroir is an important concept that includes variety of grapevine to be used, elevation and shape of vineyard, type and chemistry of soil, climate and seasonal conditions and the local yeast cultures to be used. The fermentation, ageing and processing of wine in terroir may result in good wine production.

The classification, production and sale of wine are under the control of government in many parts of the world. European wines are classified on the basis of the regions where they are produced while non-European ones are classified on the variety of grape used. Common examples of locally recognized non-Europeans regions for wine production include Napa Valley in California, Columbia Valley in Washington, Barossa and Hunter Valley in Australia, Central Valley in Chile, Hawke’s Bay and Marlborough in New Zealand and Niagara Peninsula in Canada. Some blended wines are sold by a particular trademark and are under strict rules and regulations of the government for example, Meritage is a generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot and may also include Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, and Malbec. The commercial use of the term Meritage is possible only after getting license from the Meritage Association. France uses different systems based on the concept terroir for classification. Greece and Italy classify on the basis of the regions where they are prepared. New World ones are classified on the variety of grapes used for preparation.

A vintage wine is one that is prepared from the grapes grown in a particular season of the year are labeled as vintage. Variations in the character of wine may vary due to palate, colour, nose and development. High quality wines taste better if are stored properly for a long time. Habitual wine drinkers generally stored the bottles of vintage wine for future consumption. For a wine to be called as vintage wine in United States the American Viticultural Area has passed certain rules like the vintage wine must contain 95% of the its volume of the grapes harvested in that year. All the vintage wines are bottles in a single batch so that all may have the similar taste. Climate plays an important role in character of wine as it affects its flavour and quality strongly. So we can say that vintage wines are characteristic of a particular vintage. Superior vintages from a reputed producer and region fetch higher prices of wine than average vintages. Non-vintage wines can also be blended from more than one vintage for consistency a process which allows wine makers to keep a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years.

Wine tasting is sensory examination and evaluation of wine. Wines are made from the chemical compounds that found in fruits, vegetables and spices. The sweetness of measured by the amount of sugar left in wine after fermentation, relative to the acidity present in wine. Dry wine has a very small percentage of residual sugar. Individual flavours in the wine can be easily detected as the grape juice and wine contain terpenes and esters as chief components. Experienced tasters can easily identify the type and flavour of wine. Chocolate, vanilla and coffee also act as flavouring agents for wine. Wine aroma comes from the compounds present in wine which are released on being exposed to air. Red wines are highly aromatic. Outstanding vintages from best vineyards fetch good prices in the market around $US 30-50 dollars per bottle. The most commonly purchase wines in Europe include Bordeaux, Burgundy and cult wines. The wine grapes grow almost between thirty to fifty degrees north or south of the equator. The world’s southernmost vineyards are present in the Central Otago of New Zealand’s South Islands near the 45th parallel south and the north most are in Flen, Sweden just north of 59th parallel north. UK was the largest producer of wine in the year 2007.

Wine is the most important and popular beverage of European and Mediterranean cuisines participating in the simple as well as complex traditions. Apart from its popularity as a beverage wine is also a good flavouring agent particularly used stocks and braising as its acidity imparts a different taste to the sweet dishes. Red, white and sparkling wines are very popular and are known as light wines as they conatin only 10-14% alcohol content by volume. Desert wines contain 14-20% alcohol and are sometimes fortified to make more sweet and tasty. Some wine labels suggest that after opening the wine bottle they must be allowed to breathe for few minutes before consuming while others recommend drinking the wine immediately after opening. Decanting is the process of pouring the wine in a special container for the purpose of breathing only. Decanting the wine with the help of filter removes the bitter sediments that may have been formed in the wine. Sediments are more easily formed in the older wines.

During aeration the exposure of younger wines to air adds flavour as well as aroma to them and also makes them smoother. Older wines lose their flavour as well as aroma if exposed to air for a long time. Exposure of wines to air does not benefit all types of wines. Use of wines in religion and ceremonies has been known since ancient times. Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. Kiddush is a blessing recited over grape juice to sanctify the Jewish holiday. In Christianity wine is used in a sacred rite called Eucharist which originates in the Gospel accounts of the Last Supper in which Jesus shared bread and wine with his disciples and commanded them to do the same in remembrance to me. Beliefs about the nature of Eucharist have been disputed among different Christian denominations. The use of alcohol has been strictly prohibited in the Islamic law. Iran and Afghanistan had a wine industry that vanished after the Islamic Revolution in 1979.

Excessive consumption of wine affects the human body. Every 100 gram of red wine provides about 85 Kcal energy, 2.6 g carbohydrates, 0.6 g sugars, 0.0 g fat, 0.1 g proteins and 10.6 g alcohol. Epidemiological studies have shown that moderate consumption of wine reduced death rate by preventing heart attack. Population studies have observed a J curve association between wine consumption and risk of cardiac failure. This suggests that heavy drinkers are at higher risk of getting heart attack than moderate drinkers and non-drinkers. Studies have shown that moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages reduces the risk of cardiac arrest but this association is very much strong with the wines. Some studies have proved red wines to be best over white wines. Red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine so is much more protective against cardiovascular disease.

A chemical has been isolated from the red wine called the reseveratrol which seems to have a cardioprotective as well as chemoprotective role in animals. Low doses of resveratrol were mixed in the diet of a middle-aged mouse the genetic factors that trigger ageing were found to be greatly influenced as well as the heart was found to be in a protective state. Low doses of resveratrol have a significant in conserving body energy by saving 20-30% calories. Resveratrol is produced in grape skins in response to the fungal infection, including exposure to yeast during fermentation. White wine contains lower percentage of resveratrol. Other important and beneficial compounds present in red wine include polyphenols, flavinoids and antioxidants.

To get the full benefit of resveratrol it is recommended that red wines should be consumed slowly. As major proportion of resveratrol is broken down in the gut and liver it fails to enter the blood stream. Sipping the red wines slowly increases the concentration of resveratrol in the mucous membrane of mouth to about 100%. Red wines produced in France and Sardinia (Italy) has highest concentration of procyanidins which are present in grape seeds and are responsible for cardioprotective action of red wine. Red wines obtained from these areas have 2-4% higher concentration of polycyanidins in comparison to wines obtained from other places. Procyanidins suppress the activity of a peptide known as endothelin-1 which is responsible for the constriction of blood vessels.

A study conducted in 2007 has shown that both red and white wines are very effective against certain bacteria like the strains of Streptococcus. One more study published in the issue of October 2008 in the Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention have shown that both red wine when consumed in moderate doses reduces the risk of lung cancer in men. Excessive drinking of wine may cause cirrhosis of liver and alcoholism. Effect of wine on brain is under investigation. One study has shown that wine reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Excessive consumption of wine damages the hippocampus of brain.

Sulphites are present in all wines and are produced naturally during fermentation and many wine producers add sulphur dioxide in wine in order to preserve it. Sulphur dioxide acts as a preservative for apricot and orange juice also. The amount of sulphite in wines varies greatly. Sulphites may cause asthma in some people. A study conducted on women called The Million Women Study in UK have shown that moderate consumption of wine reduces the risk of certain types of cancers like that of liver, breast and pharynx.

Most of the wines are sold in glass bottles sealed by cork. Some wine producers also use plastic corks for sealing the wine bottles. Some wines are packaged in heavy plastic bags covered by cardboard boxes and are called as box or cask wines. Box wines can maintain a high degree of freshness for about a month. Wine cellars or wine rooms are specially designed rooms that facilitate proper storage as well as ageing of wines. In an active wine cellar the temperature and humidity are maintained by climate control system. Passive wine cellars lack climate control systems and so should be carefully established. Wine is a natural perishable product and its exposure to heat, light, fluctuating temperature and humidity may result in its spoilage. When stored properly wines preserve their flavour and aroma for a considerable period of time. According to experts the optimum temperature required for ageing of wine is around 55F and the levels of humidity are supposed to be kept lower. Find out more info click Ace High Wine

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